Blood sugar, also known as blood glucose, refers to the concentration of glucose (a type of sugar) in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body’s cells and is obtained from the food we eat. After we eat, our body breaks down carbohydrates in food into glucose and releases it into the bloodstream. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps to regulate the amount of glucose in the blood by allowing cells to absorb glucose for energy or storing it for later use. The level of glucose in the blood is usually measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L), and a normal fasting blood sugar level is between 70-100 mg/dL (3.9-5.6 mmol/L) for most people. High blood sugar levels over time can lead to complications such as diabetes, while low blood sugar levels can cause symptoms like dizziness, confusion, and fatigue.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic health condition that affects the way the body processes glucose (sugar). The two main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Type 1:

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections or use an insulin pump to manage their blood sugar levels.

Type 2:

Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the body becomes resistant to insulin or does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. This type of diabetes is often linked to lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their blood sugar levels through diet and exercise, oral medications, or insulin therapy.

Symptoms of diabetes:

Symptoms of diabetes can include increased thirst and urination, unexplained weight loss, blurry vision, fatigue, and slow-healing sores or infections. If left untreated, diabetes can lead to serious health complications such as heart disease, stroke, nerve damage, kidney damage, and blindness.